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The hidden harbour of Claudius

The two breakwaters Pope Pio II in his Commentarii (1614[1]) wrote:“Emperor Claudius built a harbour protected right and left by jetties, with a mole at the entrance where the sea is deep.” The harbour basin of Claudius is located about 3.5 km north of Ostia, near the Roman town of Portus (Figure 1). Construction commenced in A.D. 42 and was …